MorphologyComparison

VTKExamples/Cxx/ImageProcessing/MorphologyComparison


Description

Although preprocessing can do a lot to improve segmentation results, postprocessing can also be useful. Morphological filters, which operate on binary or discrete images, can be useful for manipulating the shape of the segmented regions. In this brief discussion we will only consider operations that use circular footprints, even though these morphological filters can be defined much more generally.

Erosion is implemented by removing pixels within a specified distance of a border. For each pixel not in the segmented region, all the neighbors in a circular region around the pixels are turned off. This erosion filter shrinks the segmented region and small isolated regions disappear.

The opposite of erosion is dilation. This filter grows the area of segmented regions. Small holes in the segmented region are completely closed. Any pixel not in the segmented region but near the region is turned on.

Dilation and erosion are dual filters with nearly identical implementations. Dilating the “on” pixels is equivalent to eroding “off” pixels in a binary image. Holes in the map disappear. However, dilation alone also grows the boundaries of the segmented regions. When dilation is followed by erosion in a closing operation, small holes are removed; however, the boundary of the segmented regions remain in the same general location.

Opening is the dual of closing. Opening removes small islands of pixels. It is implemented with an initial erosion, followed by a dilation.

Connectivity filters can also remove small regions without affecting the remaining boundaries of segmented regions. This set of filters separate the segmented pixels into equivalence classes based on a neighbor relation. Two pixels belong to the same class if they are touching. There are two common neighbor relations in two-dimensional images: four connectivity considers pixels neighbors if they are edge neighbors, and eight connectivity considers pixels neighbors if pixels share any vertex.

This example demonstrates various binary filters that can alter the shape of segmented regions. From left to right, top to bottom: original image, connectivity, erosion, dilation, opeoing, closing.

Code

MorphologyComparison.cxx

#include <vtkCamera.h>
#include <vtkDataArray.h>
#include <vtkImageActor.h>
#include <vtkImageData.h>
#include <vtkImageDilateErode3D.h>
#include <vtkImageMapper3D.h>
#include <vtkImageProperty.h>
#include <vtkImageReader2.h>
#include <vtkImageReader2Factory.h>
#include <vtkImageSeedConnectivity.h>
#include <vtkInteractorStyleImage.h>
#include <vtkPointData.h>
#include <vtkRenderer.h>
#include <vtkRenderWindow.h>
#include <vtkRenderWindowInteractor.h>
#include <vtkSmartPointer.h>

#include <vector>

int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
  // Verify input arguments
  if ( argc != 2 )
  {
    std::cout << "Usage: " << argv[0]
              << " Filename" << std::endl;
    return EXIT_FAILURE;
  }

  // Read the image
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageReader2Factory> readerFactory =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageReader2Factory>::New();
  vtkImageReader2 *reader = readerFactory->CreateImageReader2(argv[1]);
  reader->SetFileName(argv[1]);

  // Dilate
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D> dilate =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D>::New();
  dilate->SetInputConnection(reader->GetOutputPort());
  dilate->SetDilateValue(0);
  dilate->SetErodeValue(255);
  dilate->SetKernelSize(31, 31, 1);

  // Erode
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D> erode =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D>::New();
  erode->SetInputConnection(reader->GetOutputPort());
  erode->SetDilateValue(255);
  erode->SetErodeValue(0);
  erode->SetKernelSize(31, 31, 1);

  // Opening - dilate then erode
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D> dilate1 =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D>::New();
  dilate1->SetInputConnection(reader->GetOutputPort());
  dilate1->SetDilateValue(0);
  dilate1->SetErodeValue(255);
  dilate1->SetKernelSize(31, 31, 1);

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D> erode1 =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D>::New();
  erode1->SetInputConnection(dilate1->GetOutputPort());
  erode1->SetDilateValue(255);
  erode1->SetErodeValue(0);
  erode1->SetKernelSize(31, 31, 1);

  // Closing - erode then dilate
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D> erode2 =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D>::New();
  erode2->SetInputConnection(reader->GetOutputPort());
  erode2->SetDilateValue(255);
  erode2->SetErodeValue(0);
  erode2->SetKernelSize(31, 31, 1);

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D> dilate2 =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageDilateErode3D>::New();
  dilate2->SetInputConnection(erode2->GetOutputPort());
  dilate2->SetDilateValue(0);
  dilate2->SetErodeValue(255);
  dilate2->SetKernelSize(31, 31, 1);

  // Connectivity
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageSeedConnectivity> con =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageSeedConnectivity>::New();
  con->SetInputConnection(reader->GetOutputPort());
  con->AddSeed(300, 200);
  con->SetInputConnectValue(0);
  con->SetOutputConnectedValue(0);
  con->SetOutputUnconnectedValue(255);

  // Actors
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor> originalActor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor>::New();
  originalActor->GetMapper()->SetInputConnection(reader->GetOutputPort());
  originalActor->GetProperty()->SetInterpolationTypeToNearest();

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor> connectedActor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor>::New();
  connectedActor->GetMapper()->SetInputConnection(con->GetOutputPort());
  connectedActor->GetProperty()->SetInterpolationTypeToNearest();

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor> erodeActor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor>::New();
  erodeActor->GetMapper()->SetInputConnection(erode->GetOutputPort());
  erodeActor->GetProperty()->SetInterpolationTypeToNearest();

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor> dilateActor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor>::New();
  dilateActor->GetMapper()->SetInputConnection(dilate->GetOutputPort());
  dilateActor->GetProperty()->SetInterpolationTypeToNearest();

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor> openingActor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor>::New();
  openingActor->GetMapper()->SetInputConnection(dilate2->GetOutputPort());
  openingActor->GetProperty()->SetInterpolationTypeToNearest();

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor> closingActor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor>::New();
  closingActor->GetMapper()->SetInputConnection(erode1->GetOutputPort());
  closingActor->GetProperty()->SetInterpolationTypeToNearest();

  // Setup renderers
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer> originalRenderer =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer>::New();
  originalRenderer->AddActor(originalActor);
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer> connectedRenderer =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer>::New();
  connectedRenderer->AddActor(connectedActor);
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer> dilateRenderer =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer>::New();
  dilateRenderer->AddActor(dilateActor);
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer> erodeRenderer =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer>::New();
  erodeRenderer->AddActor(erodeActor);
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer> closingRenderer =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer>::New();
  closingRenderer->AddActor(closingActor);
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer> openingRenderer =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer>::New();
  openingRenderer->AddActor(openingActor);

  std::vector<vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer> > renderers;
  renderers.push_back(originalRenderer);
  renderers.push_back(connectedRenderer);
  renderers.push_back(erodeRenderer);
  renderers.push_back(dilateRenderer);
  renderers.push_back(openingRenderer);
  renderers.push_back(closingRenderer); 

  // Setup viewports for the renderers
  int rendererSize = 300;
  unsigned int xGridDimensions = 2;
  unsigned int yGridDimensions = 3;

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderWindow> renderWindow =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderWindow>::New();
  renderWindow->SetSize(
    rendererSize * xGridDimensions, rendererSize * yGridDimensions);
  for (int row = 0; row < static_cast<int>(yGridDimensions); row++)
  {
    for (int col = 0; col < static_cast<int>(xGridDimensions); col++)
    {
      int index = row * xGridDimensions + col;
      // (xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax)
       double viewport[4] = {
         static_cast<double>(col) / xGridDimensions,
         static_cast<double>(yGridDimensions - (row + 1)) / yGridDimensions,
         static_cast<double>(col + 1) / xGridDimensions,
         static_cast<double>(yGridDimensions - row) / yGridDimensions};
      renderers[index]->SetViewport(viewport);
      renderWindow->AddRenderer(renderers[index]);
    }
  }

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderWindowInteractor> renderWindowInteractor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderWindowInteractor>::New();
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkInteractorStyleImage> style =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkInteractorStyleImage>::New();

  renderWindowInteractor->SetInteractorStyle(style);
  renderWindowInteractor->SetRenderWindow(renderWindow);

  // Renderers share one camera
  renderWindow->Render();
  renderers[0]->GetActiveCamera()->Dolly(1.5);
  renderers[0]->ResetCameraClippingRange();

  for (size_t r = 1; r < renderers.size(); ++r)
  {
    renderers[r]->SetActiveCamera(renderers[0]->GetActiveCamera());
  }
  renderWindowInteractor->Initialize();
  renderWindowInteractor->Start();

  reader->Delete();

  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

CMakeLists.txt

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8)

PROJECT(MorphologyComparison)

find_package(VTK REQUIRED)
include(${VTK_USE_FILE})

add_executable(MorphologyComparison MACOSX_BUNDLE MorphologyComparison.cxx )

target_link_libraries(MorphologyComparison ${VTK_LIBRARIES})

Download and Build MorphologyComparison

Click here to download MorphologyComparison and its CMakeLists.txt file. Once the tarball MorphologyComparison.tar has been downloaded and extracted,

cd MorphologyComparison/build 

If VTK is installed:

cmake ..

If VTK is not installed but compiled on your system, you will need to specify the path to your VTK build:

cmake -DVTK_DIR:PATH=/home/me/vtk_build ..

Build the project:

make

and run it:

./MorphologyComparison

WINDOWS USERS

Be sure to add the VTK bin directory to your path. This will resolve the VTK dll's at run time.