Pad

VTKExamples/Cxx/ImageProcessing/Pad


Description

An important point about the discrete Fourier transform is that it treats the image as a periodic function. This means the pixels on the right border are adjacent to pixels on the left border. Since there is usually no physical relationship between these pixels, the artificial horizontal and vertical edges can distort the frequency spectrum and subsequent processing. To reduce these artifacts, the original image can be multiplied by a window function that becomes zero at the borders.

Another approach removes these artificial edges by smoothing only along the borders.

In both of these approaches, a portion of the original image is lost, so only the central portion of an image can be processed. If this is unacceptable, another solution is to double the dimensions of the original image with a mirror-padding filter. The intermediate image is periodic and continuous.

The lower-left image has been padded with a constant (800). On the right, mirror padding has been used to remove artificial edges introduced by borders.

Code

Pad.cxx

#include <vtkCamera.h>
#include <vtkImageActor.h>
#include <vtkImageConstantPad.h>
#include <vtkImageMapper3D.h>
#include <vtkImageMapToWindowLevelColors.h>
#include <vtkImageMirrorPad.h>
#include <vtkImageProperty.h>
#include <vtkImageReader2.h>
#include <vtkImageReader2Factory.h>
#include <vtkInteractorStyleImage.h>
#include <vtkNamedColors.h>
#include <vtkRenderer.h>
#include <vtkRenderWindow.h>
#include <vtkRenderWindowInteractor.h>
#include <vtkSmartPointer.h>

 int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
  // Verify input arguments
  if ( argc < 2 )
  {
    std::cout << "Usage: " << argv[0]
              << " Filename" << std::endl;
    return EXIT_FAILURE;
  }

  // Read the image
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageReader2Factory> readerFactory =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageReader2Factory>::New();
  vtkImageReader2 *reader = readerFactory->CreateImageReader2(argv[1]);
  reader->SetFileName(argv[1]);
  reader->Update();

  // Pipelines
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageConstantPad> constantPad =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageConstantPad>::New();
  constantPad->SetInputConnection(reader->GetOutputPort());
  constantPad->SetConstant(800);
  constantPad->SetOutputWholeExtent(-127, 383, -127, 383, 22, 22);

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageMirrorPad> mirrorPad =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageMirrorPad>::New();
  mirrorPad->SetInputConnection(reader->GetOutputPort());
  mirrorPad->SetOutputWholeExtent(constantPad->GetOutputWholeExtent());

  // Create actors
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkNamedColors> colors =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkNamedColors>::New();

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageMapToWindowLevelColors> constantPadColor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageMapToWindowLevelColors>::New();
  constantPadColor->SetWindow(2000);
  constantPadColor->SetLevel(1000);
  constantPadColor->SetInputConnection(constantPad->GetOutputPort());

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor> constantPadActor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor>::New();
  constantPadActor->GetMapper()->SetInputConnection(
    constantPadColor->GetOutputPort());
  constantPadActor->GetProperty()->SetInterpolationTypeToNearest();

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageMapToWindowLevelColors> mirrorPadColor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageMapToWindowLevelColors>::New();
  mirrorPadColor->SetWindow(2000);
  mirrorPadColor->SetLevel(1000);
  mirrorPadColor->SetInputConnection(mirrorPad->GetOutputPort());

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor> mirrorPadActor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageActor>::New();
  mirrorPadActor->GetMapper()->SetInputConnection(
    mirrorPadColor->GetOutputPort());
  mirrorPadActor->GetProperty()->SetInterpolationTypeToNearest();

  // Setup renderers
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer> constantPadRenderer =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer>::New();
  constantPadRenderer->SetViewport(0.0, 0.0, 0.5, 1.0);
  constantPadRenderer->AddActor(constantPadActor);
  constantPadRenderer->ResetCamera();
  constantPadRenderer->SetBackground(colors->GetColor3d("SlateGray").GetData());

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer> mirrorPadRenderer =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer>::New();
  mirrorPadRenderer->SetViewport(0.5, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0);
  mirrorPadRenderer->AddActor(mirrorPadActor);
  mirrorPadRenderer->SetActiveCamera(constantPadRenderer->GetActiveCamera());
  mirrorPadRenderer->SetBackground(colors->GetColor3d("LightSlateGray").GetData());

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderWindow> renderWindow =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderWindow>::New();
  renderWindow->SetSize(600, 300);
  renderWindow->AddRenderer(constantPadRenderer);
  renderWindow->AddRenderer(mirrorPadRenderer);

  vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderWindowInteractor> renderWindowInteractor =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderWindowInteractor>::New();
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkInteractorStyleImage> style =
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkInteractorStyleImage>::New();

  renderWindowInteractor->SetInteractorStyle(style);

  renderWindowInteractor->SetRenderWindow(renderWindow);
  constantPadRenderer->GetActiveCamera()->Dolly(1.2);
  constantPadRenderer->ResetCameraClippingRange();
  renderWindowInteractor->Initialize();

  renderWindowInteractor->Start();

  reader->Delete();
  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

CMakeLists.txt

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8)

PROJECT(Pad)

find_package(VTK REQUIRED)
include(${VTK_USE_FILE})

add_executable(Pad MACOSX_BUNDLE Pad.cxx )

target_link_libraries(Pad ${VTK_LIBRARIES})

Download and Build Pad

Click here to download Pad and its CMakeLists.txt file. Once the tarball Pad.tar has been downloaded and extracted,

cd Pad/build 

If VTK is installed:

cmake ..

If VTK is not installed but compiled on your system, you will need to specify the path to your VTK build:

cmake -DVTK_DIR:PATH=/home/me/vtk_build ..

Build the project:

make

and run it:

./Pad

WINDOWS USERS

Be sure to add the VTK bin directory to your path. This will resolve the VTK dll's at run time.