PhysicallyBasedRendering

VTKExamples/Cxx/Rendering/PhysicallyBasedRendering


Description

Demonstrates physically based rendering (PBR) using image based lighting, texturing and a skybox.

Physically based rendering sets metallicity, roughness, occlusion strength, the emissive factor and normal scaling of the object. Textures are used to set base color, ORM, emissivity and normals. Textures for the image based lighting and the skymap are supplied from a cubemap.

Sliders are provided for:

  • metallicity
  • roughness
  • occlusion strength
  • normal scaling

Image based lighting uses a cubemap texture to specify the environment.

Textures are provided for:

  • setting the base colour
  • Occlusion factor, the Roughness factor, and the Metalness factor (ORM)
  • emissivity
  • normals

A Skybox is used to create the illusion of distant three-dimensional surroundings.

You can select different cubemaps and different surfaces to visualise.

For more information, see Introducing Physically Based Rendering with VTK.

Note

Occlusion is subtle, you will see it in the shadowing around the letters VTK on the surface.

Note

Physically Based Rendering (PBR) will be available in VTK 9.0 and is already available on the current master branch of VTK.

Note

The cubemap/skybox files are found in VTKExamples/Testing/Data/skyboxes/.

Other Languages

See (Python)

Question

If you have a simple question about this example contact us at VTKExamplesProject If your question is more complex and may require extended discussion, please use the VTK Discourse Forum

Code

PhysicallyBasedRendering.cxx

#include <vtkActor.h>
#include <vtkAxesActor.h>
#include <vtkBMPReader.h>
#include <vtkCubeSource.h>
#include <vtkDataSet.h>
#include <vtkFloatArray.h>
#include <vtkImageFlip.h>
#include <vtkImageReader2Factory.h>
#include <vtkJPEGReader.h>
#include <vtkLinearSubdivisionFilter.h>
#include <vtkNamedColors.h>
#include <vtkOrientationMarkerWidget.h>
#include <vtkPNGReader.h>
#include <vtkPNMReader.h>
#include <vtkParametricBoy.h>
#include <vtkParametricFunctionSource.h>
#include <vtkParametricMobius.h>
#include <vtkParametricRandomHills.h>
#include <vtkParametricTorus.h>
#include <vtkPointData.h>
#include <vtkPolyData.h>
#include <vtkPolyDataMapper.h>
#include <vtkPolyDataTangents.h>
#include <vtkProperty.h>
#include <vtkRenderWindow.h>
#include <vtkRenderWindowInteractor.h>
#include <vtkRenderer.h>
#include <vtkSkybox.h>
#include <vtkSliderRepresentation2D.h>
#include <vtkSliderWidget.h>
#include <vtkSmartPointer.h>
#include <vtkTIFFReader.h>
#include <vtkTexture.h>
#include <vtkTexturedSphereSource.h>
#include <vtkTransform.h>
#include <vtkTransformPolyDataFilter.h>
#include <vtkTriangleFilter.h>
#include <vtkVersion.h>

#include <algorithm>
#include <array>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iomanip>
#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <string>

namespace {
/**
 * Show the command lime parameters.
 *
 * @param fn: The program name.
 *
 * @return A string describing the usage.
 */
std::string ShowUsage(std::string fn);

/**
 * Check the VTK version.
 *
 * @param major: Major version.
 * @param major: Minor version.
 * @param major: Build version.
 *
 * @return True if the requested VTK version is greater or equal to the actual
 * VTK version.
 */
bool VTKVersionOk(unsigned long long const& major,
                  unsigned long long const& minor,
                  unsigned long long const& build);

vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetBoy();
vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetMobius();
vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetSphere();
vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetRandomHills();
vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetTorus();
vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetCube();

/**
 * Generate u, v texture coordinates on a parametric surface.
 *
 * @param uResolution: u resolution
 * @param vResolution: v resolution
 * @param pd: The polydata representing the surface.
 *
 * @return The polydata with the texture coordinates added.
 */
vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> UVTcoords(const float& uResolution,
                                       const float& vResolution,
                                       vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> pd);

/**
 * Read six images forming a cubemap.
 *
 * @param folderRoot: The folder where the cube maps are stored.
 * @param fileRoot: The root of the individual cube map file names.
 * @param ext: The extension of the cube map files.
 * @param key: The key to data used to build the full file name.
 *
 * @return The cubemap texture.
 */
vtkSmartPointer<vtkTexture> ReadCubeMap(std::string const& folderRoot,
                                        std::string const& fileRoot,
                                        std::string const& ext, int const& key);

/**
 * Read an image and convert it to a texture.
 *
 * @param path: The image path.
 *
 * @return The texture.
 */
vtkSmartPointer<vtkTexture> GetTexture(std::string path);

class SliderCallbackMetallic : public vtkCommand
{
public:
  static SliderCallbackMetallic* New()
  {
    return new SliderCallbackMetallic;
  }
  virtual void Execute(vtkObject* caller, unsigned long, void*)
  {
    vtkSliderWidget* sliderWidget = reinterpret_cast<vtkSliderWidget*>(caller);
    double value = static_cast<vtkSliderRepresentation2D*>(
                       sliderWidget->GetRepresentation())
                       ->GetValue();
    this->property->SetMetallic(value);
  }
  SliderCallbackMetallic() : property(nullptr)
  {
  }
  vtkProperty* property;
};

class SliderCallbackRoughness : public vtkCommand
{
public:
  static SliderCallbackRoughness* New()
  {
    return new SliderCallbackRoughness;
  }
  virtual void Execute(vtkObject* caller, unsigned long, void*)
  {
    vtkSliderWidget* sliderWidget = reinterpret_cast<vtkSliderWidget*>(caller);
    double value = static_cast<vtkSliderRepresentation2D*>(
                       sliderWidget->GetRepresentation())
                       ->GetValue();
    this->property->SetRoughness(value);
  }
  SliderCallbackRoughness() : property(nullptr)
  {
  }
  vtkProperty* property;
};

class SliderCallbackOcclusionStrength : public vtkCommand
{
public:
  static SliderCallbackOcclusionStrength* New()
  {
    return new SliderCallbackOcclusionStrength;
  }
  virtual void Execute(vtkObject* caller, unsigned long, void*)
  {
    vtkSliderWidget* sliderWidget = reinterpret_cast<vtkSliderWidget*>(caller);
    double value = static_cast<vtkSliderRepresentation2D*>(
                       sliderWidget->GetRepresentation())
                       ->GetValue();
    this->property->SetOcclusionStrength(value);
  }
  SliderCallbackOcclusionStrength() : property(nullptr)
  {
  }
  vtkProperty* property;
};

class SliderCallbackNormalScale : public vtkCommand
{
public:
  static SliderCallbackNormalScale* New()
  {
    return new SliderCallbackNormalScale;
  }
  virtual void Execute(vtkObject* caller, unsigned long, void*)
  {
    vtkSliderWidget* sliderWidget = reinterpret_cast<vtkSliderWidget*>(caller);
    double value = static_cast<vtkSliderRepresentation2D*>(
                       sliderWidget->GetRepresentation())
                       ->GetValue();
    this->property->SetNormalScale(value);
  }
  SliderCallbackNormalScale() : property(nullptr)
  {
  }
  vtkProperty* property;
};

struct SliderProperties
{
  // Set up the sliders
  double tubeWidth{0.008};
  double sliderLength{0.008};
  double titleHeight{0.02};
  double labelHeight{0.02};

  double minimumValue{0.0};
  double maximumValue{1.0};
  double initialValue{0.0};

  std::array<double, 2> p1{0.2, 0.1};
  std::array<double, 2> p2{0.8, 0.1};

  std::string title{""};
};

vtkSmartPointer<vtkSliderWidget>
MakeSliderWidget(SliderProperties const& properties);

} // namespace

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
  if (!VTKVersionOk(8, 90, 0))
  {
    std::cerr << "You need VTK version 8.90 or greater to run this program."
              << std::endl;
    return EXIT_FAILURE;
  }

  std::string filePath{""};
  if (argc < 6)
  {
    std::cout << ShowUsage(argv[0]) << std::endl;
    return EXIT_FAILURE;
  }

  // Get the cube map
  // auto cubemap = ReadCubeMap(argv[1], "/", ".jpg", 0);
  auto cubemap = ReadCubeMap(argv[1], "/", ".jpg", 1);
  // auto cubemap = ReadCubeMap(argv[1], "/skybox", ".jpg", 2);

  // Load the skybox
  // Read it again as there is no deep copy for vtkTexture
  // auto skybox = ReadCubeMap(argv[1], "/", ".jpg", 0);
  auto skybox = ReadCubeMap(argv[1], "/", ".jpg", 1);
  // auto skybox = ReadCubeMap(argv[1], "/skybox", ".jpg", 2);
  skybox->InterpolateOn();
  skybox->RepeatOff();
  skybox->EdgeClampOn();

  // Get the textures
  auto material = GetTexture(argv[2]);
  auto albedo = GetTexture(argv[3]);
  albedo->UseSRGBColorSpaceOn();
  auto normal = GetTexture(argv[4]);
  auto emissive = GetTexture(argv[5]);
  emissive->UseSRGBColorSpaceOn();

  // Get the surface
  std::string desiredSurface = "boy";
  if (argc > 6)
  {
    desiredSurface = argv[6];
  }
  std::transform(desiredSurface.begin(), desiredSurface.end(),
                 desiredSurface.begin(),
                 [](char c) { return std::tolower(c); });
  std::map<std::string, int> availableSurfaces = {
      {"boy", 0},   {"mobius", 1}, {"randomhills", 2},
      {"torus", 3}, {"sphere", 4}, {"cube", 5}};
  if (availableSurfaces.find(desiredSurface) == availableSurfaces.end())
  {
    desiredSurface = "boy";
  }
  auto source = vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData>::New();
  switch (availableSurfaces[desiredSurface])
  {
  case 1:
    source = GetMobius();
    break;
  case 2:
    source = GetRandomHills();
    break;
  case 3:
    source = GetTorus();
    break;
  case 4:
    source = GetSphere();
    break;
  case 5:
    source = GetCube();
    break;
  case 0:
  default:
    source = GetBoy();
  };
  // source->Print(std::cout);
  // source->PrintSelf(std::cout, vtkIndent(2));

  auto colors = vtkSmartPointer<vtkNamedColors>::New();

  // Set the background color.
  std::array<unsigned char, 4> col{{26, 51, 102, 255}};
  colors->SetColor("BkgColor", col.data());
  // VTK blue
  std::array<unsigned char, 4> col1{{6, 79, 141, 255}};
  colors->SetColor("VTKBlue", col1.data());
  // Let's make a complementary colour to VTKBlue
  std::transform(col1.begin(), std::prev(col1.end()), col1.begin(),
                 [](unsigned char c) { return 255 - c; });
  colors->SetColor("VTKBlueComp", col1.data());

  auto renderer = vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderer>::New();
  auto renderWindow = vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderWindow>::New();
  renderWindow->AddRenderer(renderer);
  auto interactor = vtkSmartPointer<vtkRenderWindowInteractor>::New();
  interactor->SetRenderWindow(renderWindow);

  // Lets use a rough metallic surface
  auto metallicCoefficient = 1.0;
  auto roughnessCoefficient = 0.8;
  // Other parameters
  auto occlusionStrength = 10.0;
  auto normalScale = 10.0;
  // Make VTK silvery in appearance
  auto emissiveCol = colors->GetColor3d("VTKBlueComp").GetData();
  std::array<double, 3> emissiveFactor{emissiveCol[0], emissiveCol[1],
                                       emissiveCol[2]};
  // std::array<double, 3> emissiveFactor{1.0, 1.0, 1.0};
  //   std::cout << emissiveFactor[0] << ", " <<  emissiveFactor[1] << ", " <<
  //   emissiveFactor[2] << std::endl;

  auto slwP = SliderProperties();
  slwP.initialValue = metallicCoefficient;
  slwP.title = "Metallicity";

  auto sliderWidgetMetallic = MakeSliderWidget(slwP);
  sliderWidgetMetallic->SetInteractor(interactor);
  sliderWidgetMetallic->SetAnimationModeToAnimate();
  sliderWidgetMetallic->EnabledOn();

  slwP.initialValue = roughnessCoefficient;
  slwP.title = "Roughness";
  slwP.p1[0] = 0.2;
  slwP.p1[1] = 0.9;
  slwP.p2[0] = 0.8;
  slwP.p2[1] = 0.9;

  auto sliderWidgetRoughness = MakeSliderWidget(slwP);
  sliderWidgetRoughness->SetInteractor(interactor);
  sliderWidgetRoughness->SetAnimationModeToAnimate();
  sliderWidgetRoughness->EnabledOn();

  slwP.initialValue = occlusionStrength;
  slwP.title = "Occlusion";
  slwP.p1[0] = 0.1;
  slwP.p1[1] = 0.1;
  slwP.p2[0] = 0.1;
  slwP.p2[1] = 0.9;

  auto sliderWidgetOcclusionStrength = MakeSliderWidget(slwP);
  sliderWidgetOcclusionStrength->SetInteractor(interactor);
  sliderWidgetOcclusionStrength->SetAnimationModeToAnimate();
  sliderWidgetOcclusionStrength->EnabledOn();

  slwP.initialValue = normalScale;
  slwP.title = "Normal";
  slwP.p1[0] = 0.85;
  slwP.p1[1] = 0.1;
  slwP.p2[0] = 0.85;
  slwP.p2[1] = 0.9;

  auto sliderWidgetNormal = MakeSliderWidget(slwP);
  sliderWidgetNormal->SetInteractor(interactor);
  sliderWidgetNormal->SetAnimationModeToAnimate();
  sliderWidgetNormal->EnabledOn();

  // Build the pipeline
  auto mapper = vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyDataMapper>::New();
  mapper->SetInputData(source);

  auto actor = vtkSmartPointer<vtkActor>::New();
  actor->SetMapper(mapper);

  actor->GetProperty()->SetInterpolationToPBR();

  // configure the basic properties
  actor->GetProperty()->SetColor(colors->GetColor3d("White").GetData());
  actor->GetProperty()->SetMetallic(metallicCoefficient);
  actor->GetProperty()->SetRoughness(roughnessCoefficient);

  // configure textures (needs tcoords on the mesh)
  actor->GetProperty()->SetBaseColorTexture(albedo);
  actor->GetProperty()->SetORMTexture(material);
  actor->GetProperty()->SetOcclusionStrength(occlusionStrength);

  actor->GetProperty()->SetEmissiveTexture(emissive);
  actor->GetProperty()->SetEmissiveFactor(emissiveFactor.data());

  // needs tcoords, normals and tangents on the mesh
  actor->GetProperty()->SetNormalTexture(normal);
  actor->GetProperty()->SetNormalScale(normalScale);

  renderer->UseImageBasedLightingOn();
  renderer->SetEnvironmentCubeMap(cubemap);
  renderer->SetBackground(colors->GetColor3d("BkgColor").GetData());
  renderer->AddActor(actor);

  // Comment out if you don't want a skybox
  auto skyboxActor = vtkSmartPointer<vtkSkybox>::New();
  skyboxActor->SetTexture(skybox);
  renderer->AddActor(skyboxActor);

  // Create the slider callbacks to manipulate metallicity, roughness,
  // occlusion strength and normal scaling
  auto callbackMetallic = vtkSmartPointer<SliderCallbackMetallic>::New();
  callbackMetallic->property = actor->GetProperty();
  auto callbackRoughness = vtkSmartPointer<SliderCallbackRoughness>::New();
  callbackRoughness->property = actor->GetProperty();
  auto callbackOcclusionStrength =
      vtkSmartPointer<SliderCallbackOcclusionStrength>::New();
  callbackOcclusionStrength->property = actor->GetProperty();
  auto callbackNormalScale = vtkSmartPointer<SliderCallbackNormalScale>::New();
  callbackNormalScale->property = actor->GetProperty();

  sliderWidgetMetallic->AddObserver(vtkCommand::InteractionEvent,
                                    callbackMetallic);
  sliderWidgetRoughness->AddObserver(vtkCommand::InteractionEvent,
                                     callbackRoughness);
  sliderWidgetOcclusionStrength->AddObserver(vtkCommand::InteractionEvent,
                                             callbackOcclusionStrength);
  sliderWidgetNormal->AddObserver(vtkCommand::InteractionEvent,
                                  callbackNormalScale);

  renderWindow->SetSize(640, 480);
  renderWindow->Render();
  renderWindow->SetWindowName("PhysicallyBasedRendering");

  auto axes = vtkSmartPointer<vtkAxesActor>::New();

  auto widget = vtkSmartPointer<vtkOrientationMarkerWidget>::New();
  double rgba[4]{0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0};
  colors->GetColor("Carrot", rgba);
  widget->SetOutlineColor(rgba[0], rgba[1], rgba[2]);
  widget->SetOrientationMarker(axes);
  widget->SetInteractor(interactor);
  widget->SetViewport(0.0, 0.0, 0.2, 0.2);
  widget->SetEnabled(1);
  widget->InteractiveOn();

  interactor->SetRenderWindow(renderWindow);

  renderWindow->Render();
  interactor->Start();
  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

namespace {
std::string ShowUsage(std::string fn)
{
  // Remove the folder (if present) then remove the extension in this order
  // since the folder name may contain periods.
  auto last_slash_idx = fn.find_last_of("\\/");
  if (std::string::npos != last_slash_idx)
  {
    fn.erase(0, last_slash_idx + 1);
  }
  auto period_idx = fn.rfind('.');
  if (std::string::npos != period_idx)
  {
    fn.erase(period_idx);
  }
  std::ostringstream os;
  os << "\nusage: " << fn
     << " path material_fn albedo_fn normal_fn emissive_fn [surface]\n\n"
     << "Demonstrates physically based rendering, image based lighting, "
        ", texturing and a skybox.\n\n"
     << "positional arguments:\n"
     << "  path         The path to the cubemap files e.g. skyboxes/skybox2/\n"
     << "  material_fn  The path to the material texture file e.g. "
        "vtk_Material.png\n"
     << "  albedo_fn    The path to the albedo (base colour) texture file e.g. "
        "vtk_Base_Color.png\n"
     << "  normal_fn    The path to the normal texture file e.g. "
        "vtk_Normal.png\n"
     << "  emissive_fn  The path to the emissive texture file e.g. "
        "vtk_dark_bkg.png\n"
     << "  surface      The surface to use. Boy's surface is the default.\n\n"
     << "Physically based rendering sets color, metallicity and roughness of "
        "the object.\n"
     << "Image based lighting uses a cubemap texture to specify the "
        "environment.\n"
     << "Texturing is used to generate lighting effects.\n"
     << "A Skybox is used to create the illusion of distant three-dimensional "
        "surroundings.\n"
     << "\n"
     << std::endl;
  return os.str();
}

bool VTKVersionOk(unsigned long long const& major,
                  unsigned long long const& minor,
                  unsigned long long const& build)
{
  unsigned long long neededVersion =
      10000000000ULL * major + 100000000ULL * minor + build;
#ifndef VTK_VERSION_NUMBER
  auto ver = vtkSmartPointer<vtkVersion>();
  unsigned long long vtk_version_number =
      10000000000ULL * ver->GetVTKMajorVersion() +
      100000000ULL * ver->GetVTKMinorVersion() + ver->GetVTKBuildVersion();
  if (vtk_version_number <= neededVersion)
  {
    return true;
  }
#else
  if (VTK_VERSION_NUMBER <= neededVersion)
  {
    return true;
  }
#endif
  return false;
}

vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetBoy()
{
  auto uResolution = 51;
  auto vResolution = 51;
  auto surface = vtkSmartPointer<vtkParametricBoy>::New();

  auto source = vtkSmartPointer<vtkParametricFunctionSource>::New();
  source->SetUResolution(uResolution);
  source->SetVResolution(vResolution);
  source->SetParametricFunction(surface);
  source->Update();
  // Build the tcoords
  auto pd = UVTcoords(uResolution, vResolution, source->GetOutput());
  // Now the tangents
  auto tangents = vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyDataTangents>::New();
  tangents->SetInputData(pd);
  tangents->Update();
  return tangents->GetOutput();
}

vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetMobius()
{
  auto uResolution = 51;
  auto vResolution = 51;
  auto surface = vtkSmartPointer<vtkParametricMobius>::New();
  surface->SetMinimumV(-0.25);
  surface->SetMaximumV(0.25);

  auto source = vtkSmartPointer<vtkParametricFunctionSource>::New();
  source->SetUResolution(uResolution);
  source->SetVResolution(vResolution);
  source->SetParametricFunction(surface);
  source->Update();
  // Build the tcoords
  auto pd = UVTcoords(uResolution, vResolution, source->GetOutput());
  // Now the tangents
  auto tangents = vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyDataTangents>::New();
  tangents->SetInputData(pd);
  tangents->Update();

  auto transform = vtkSmartPointer<vtkTransform>::New();
  transform->RotateX(90.0);
  auto transformFilter = vtkSmartPointer<vtkTransformPolyDataFilter>::New();
  transformFilter->SetInputConnection(tangents->GetOutputPort());
  transformFilter->SetTransform(transform);
  transformFilter->Update();

  return transformFilter->GetOutput();
}

vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetRandomHills()
{
  auto uResolution = 51;
  auto vResolution = 51;
  auto surface = vtkSmartPointer<vtkParametricRandomHills>::New();
  surface->SetRandomSeed(1);
  surface->SetNumberOfHills(30);
  // If you want a plane
  // surface->SetHillAmplitude(0);

  auto source = vtkSmartPointer<vtkParametricFunctionSource>::New();
  source->SetUResolution(uResolution);
  source->SetVResolution(vResolution);
  source->SetParametricFunction(surface);
  source->Update();

  // Build the tcoords
  auto pd = UVTcoords(uResolution, vResolution, source->GetOutput());
  // Now the tangents
  auto tangents = vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyDataTangents>::New();
  tangents->SetInputData(pd);
  tangents->Update();

  auto transform = vtkSmartPointer<vtkTransform>::New();
  transform->RotateZ(180.0);
  transform->RotateX(90.0);
  auto transformFilter = vtkSmartPointer<vtkTransformPolyDataFilter>::New();
  transformFilter->SetInputConnection(tangents->GetOutputPort());
  transformFilter->SetTransform(transform);
  transformFilter->Update();

  return transformFilter->GetOutput();
}

vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetTorus()
{
  auto uResolution = 51;
  auto vResolution = 51;
  auto surface = vtkSmartPointer<vtkParametricTorus>::New();

  auto source = vtkSmartPointer<vtkParametricFunctionSource>::New();
  source->SetUResolution(uResolution);
  source->SetVResolution(vResolution);
  source->SetParametricFunction(surface);

  source->Update();
  // Build the tcoords
  auto pd = UVTcoords(uResolution, vResolution, source->GetOutput());
  // Now the tangents
  auto tangents = vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyDataTangents>::New();
  tangents->SetInputData(pd);
  tangents->Update();

  auto transform = vtkSmartPointer<vtkTransform>::New();
  transform->RotateX(90.0);
  auto transformFilter = vtkSmartPointer<vtkTransformPolyDataFilter>::New();
  transformFilter->SetInputConnection(tangents->GetOutputPort());
  transformFilter->SetTransform(transform);
  transformFilter->Update();

  return transformFilter->GetOutput();
}

vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetSphere()
{
  auto thetaResolution = 32;
  auto phiResolution = 32;
  auto surface = vtkSmartPointer<vtkTexturedSphereSource>::New();
  surface->SetThetaResolution(thetaResolution);
  surface->SetPhiResolution(phiResolution);

  // Now the tangents
  auto tangents = vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyDataTangents>::New();
  tangents->SetInputConnection(surface->GetOutputPort());
  tangents->Update();
  return tangents->GetOutput();
}

vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> GetCube()
{
  auto surface = vtkSmartPointer<vtkCubeSource>::New();

  // Triangulate
  auto triangulation = vtkSmartPointer<vtkTriangleFilter>::New();
  triangulation->SetInputConnection(surface->GetOutputPort());
  // Subdivide the triangles
  auto subdivide = vtkSmartPointer<vtkLinearSubdivisionFilter>::New();
  subdivide->SetInputConnection(triangulation->GetOutputPort());
  subdivide->SetNumberOfSubdivisions(3);
  // Now the tangents
  auto tangents = vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyDataTangents>::New();
  tangents->SetInputConnection(subdivide->GetOutputPort());
  tangents->Update();
  return tangents->GetOutput();
}

vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> UVTcoords(const float& uResolution,
                                       const float& vResolution,
                                       vtkSmartPointer<vtkPolyData> pd)
{
  float u0 = 1.0;
  float v0 = 0.0;
  float du = 1.0 / (uResolution - 1);
  float dv = 1.0 / (vResolution - 1);
  vtkIdType numPts = pd->GetNumberOfPoints();
  auto tCoords = vtkSmartPointer<vtkFloatArray>::New();
  tCoords->SetNumberOfComponents(2);
  tCoords->SetNumberOfTuples(numPts);
  tCoords->SetName("Texture Coordinates");
  vtkIdType ptId = 0;
  float u = u0;
  for (auto i = 0; i < uResolution; ++i)
  {
    float v = v0;
    for (auto j = 0; j < vResolution; ++j)
    {
      float tc[2]{u, v};
      tCoords->SetTuple(ptId, tc);
      v += dv;
      ptId++;
    }
    u -= du;
  }
  pd->GetPointData()->SetTCoords(tCoords);
  return pd;
}

vtkSmartPointer<vtkTexture> GetTexture(std::string path)
{
  // Read the image which will be the texture
  std::string extension;
  if (path.find_last_of(".") != std::string::npos)
  {
    extension = path.substr(path.find_last_of("."));
  }
  // Make the extension lowercase
  std::transform(extension.begin(), extension.end(), extension.begin(),
                 ::tolower);
  std::vector<std::string> validExtensions{".jpg", ".png", ".bmp", ".tiff",
                                           ".pnm", ".pgm", ".ppm"};
  auto texture = vtkSmartPointer<vtkTexture>::New();
  if (std::find(validExtensions.begin(), validExtensions.end(), extension) ==
      validExtensions.end())
  {
    std::cout << "Unable to read the texture file:" << path << std::endl;
    return texture;
  }
  // Read the images
  auto readerFactory = vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageReader2Factory>::New();
  vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageReader2> imgReader;
  imgReader.TakeReference(readerFactory->CreateImageReader2(path.c_str()));
  imgReader->SetFileName(path.c_str());

  texture->SetInputConnection(imgReader->GetOutputPort());
  texture->Update();

  return texture;
}

vtkSmartPointer<vtkTexture> ReadCubeMap(std::string const& folderRoot,
                                        std::string const& fileRoot,
                                        std::string const& ext, int const& key)
{
  // A map of cube map naming conventions and the corresponding file name
  // components.
  std::map<int, std::vector<std::string>> fileNames{
      {0, {"right", "left", "top", "bottom", "front", "back"}},
      {1, {"posx", "negx", "posy", "negy", "posz", "negz"}},
      {2, {"-px", "-nx", "-py", "-ny", "-pz", "-nz"}},
      {3, {"0", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5"}}};
  std::vector<std::string> fns;
  if (fileNames.count(key))
  {
    fns = fileNames.at(key);
  }
  else
  {
    std::cerr << "ReadCubeMap(): invalid key, unable to continue." << std::endl;
    std::exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
  }
  auto texture = vtkSmartPointer<vtkTexture>::New();
  texture->CubeMapOn();
  // Build the file names.
  std::for_each(fns.begin(), fns.end(),
                [&folderRoot, &fileRoot, &ext](std::string& f) {
                  f = folderRoot + fileRoot + f + ext;
                });
  auto i = 0;
  for (auto const& fn : fns)
  {
    // Read the images
    auto readerFactory = vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageReader2Factory>::New();
    vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageReader2> imgReader;
    imgReader.TakeReference(readerFactory->CreateImageReader2(fn.c_str()));
    imgReader->SetFileName(fn.c_str());

    auto flip = vtkSmartPointer<vtkImageFlip>::New();
    flip->SetInputConnection(imgReader->GetOutputPort());
    flip->SetFilteredAxis(1); // flip y axis
    texture->SetInputConnection(i, flip->GetOutputPort(0));
    ++i;
  }
  return texture;
}

vtkSmartPointer<vtkSliderWidget>
MakeSliderWidget(SliderProperties const& properties)
{
  auto slider = vtkSmartPointer<vtkSliderRepresentation2D>::New();

  slider->SetMinimumValue(properties.minimumValue);
  slider->SetMaximumValue(properties.maximumValue);
  slider->SetValue(properties.initialValue);
  slider->SetTitleText(properties.title.c_str());

  slider->GetPoint1Coordinate()->SetCoordinateSystemToNormalizedDisplay();
  slider->GetPoint1Coordinate()->SetValue(properties.p1[0], properties.p1[1]);
  slider->GetPoint2Coordinate()->SetCoordinateSystemToNormalizedDisplay();
  slider->GetPoint2Coordinate()->SetValue(properties.p2[0], properties.p2[1]);

  slider->SetTubeWidth(properties.tubeWidth);
  slider->SetSliderLength(properties.sliderLength);
  slider->SetTitleHeight(properties.titleHeight);
  slider->SetLabelHeight(properties.labelHeight);

  auto sliderWidget = vtkSmartPointer<vtkSliderWidget>::New();
  sliderWidget->SetRepresentation(slider);

  return sliderWidget;
}

} // namespace

CMakeLists.txt

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.3 FATAL_ERROR)

project(PhysicallyBasedRendering)

find_package(VTK COMPONENTS 
  vtkCommonColor
  vtkCommonComputationalGeometry
  vtkCommonCore
  vtkCommonDataModel
  vtkCommonTransforms
  vtkFiltersCore
  vtkFiltersGeneral
  vtkFiltersModeling
  vtkFiltersSources
  vtkIOImage
  vtkImagingCore
  vtkInteractionStyle
  vtkInteractionWidgets
  vtkRenderingAnnotation
  vtkRenderingContextOpenGL2
  vtkRenderingCore
  vtkRenderingFreeType
  vtkRenderingGL2PSOpenGL2
  vtkRenderingOpenGL2 QUIET)
if (NOT VTK_FOUND)
  message("Skipping PhysicallyBasedRendering: ${VTK_NOT_FOUND_MESSAGE}")
  return ()
endif()
message (STATUS "VTK_VERSION: ${VTK_VERSION}")
if (VTK_VERSION VERSION_LESS "8.90.0")
  # old system
  include(${VTK_USE_FILE})
  add_executable(PhysicallyBasedRendering MACOSX_BUNDLE PhysicallyBasedRendering.cxx )
  target_link_libraries(PhysicallyBasedRendering PRIVATE ${VTK_LIBRARIES})
else ()
  # include all components
  add_executable(PhysicallyBasedRendering MACOSX_BUNDLE PhysicallyBasedRendering.cxx )
  target_link_libraries(PhysicallyBasedRendering PRIVATE ${VTK_LIBRARIES})
  # vtk_module_autoinit is needed
  vtk_module_autoinit(
    TARGETS PhysicallyBasedRendering
    MODULES ${VTK_LIBRARIES}
    )
endif () 

Download and Build PhysicallyBasedRendering

Click here to download PhysicallyBasedRendering and its CMakeLists.txt file. Once the tarball PhysicallyBasedRendering.tar has been downloaded and extracted,

cd PhysicallyBasedRendering/build 

If VTK is installed:

cmake ..

If VTK is not installed but compiled on your system, you will need to specify the path to your VTK build:

cmake -DVTK_DIR:PATH=/home/me/vtk_build ..

Build the project:

make

and run it:

./PhysicallyBasedRendering

WINDOWS USERS

Be sure to add the VTK bin directory to your path. This will resolve the VTK dll's at run time.